Sindh or Sind borrows its name from the Indus River that meanders through its plains.
It is this river that distinguished it with the perhaps the first civilization of the world about six thousand years ago. Mohenjo-Daro ruins are 4,500 hundred years old. The ruins represent almost a classless society
Mohenjo-Daro ruins corroborate this claim of Sindhis. Sindh lost into oblivion when the Indus changed its course (about 2300 to 1750 BC).
Persian made it part of their empire in 6th century BC. Alexander ransacked it in the 4thcentury BC. Chandragupta Maurya succeeded him and then there came the turn of Indo-Greeks and Parthians. Kushans took over in 100 BC, and Sindh became Buddhist. Persian Sasanids reclaimed it in 3rd AD and retained their hold until the 7th century. Arabs succeeded them and remained in the saddle until the 16th century. Mughals established their control in the 16th century. The local dynasties got their turn to rule in the 18thcentury. The 19th century saw Sindh slipping into the British control. They made it a part of Bombay province in the British India. In 1937, it appeared as a separate province. In 1947, it chose to be a part of Pakistan
British influenced Sindh noticeably by commissioning Sukkur dam in the 20th century. It revolutionized the province by transforming dry lands into a bonanza. It also fostered feudalism here, and it is still intact. The British developed backwater fishers’ village into sea port of Karachi. Karachi is the capital of Sindh as well. Also, it is the business center and a cosmopolitan city of Pakistan. Its potential attracts people from every part of the country. This makes it a mini Pakistan. The presence of beaches adds another string to its bow. The beach houses pricey domestic and commercial property.
Balochistan province surrounds the west and north of Sindh. Punjab hedges it in the northeast and the Indian Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east. Arabia Sea hedges Sindh to the south. Its area is 54,407 square miles. The land of Sind is made up three belts side by side stretching from north to south. Kirthar Range is one belt to the west. Floodplain of the Indus and desert are the second and third belt. The first belt is almost barren. The second belt is fertile and spread over 20,000 square miles. It grows several kinds of fruit-bearing trees. The third belt consists of two deserts; Thar and Achro Thar or the White Sand Desert. Aquatic and semi-aquatic plant grow in creeks and coastal areas.
As far the ethnic groups are concerned, Mehs or Muhannas are the natives. They are joined by Rajputs, Jats, Lakhas, Kahas, and so on. The 8th century dawned Islam and influx of Arabs, Persians, and Turks who made this land their home. The 13th century saw Baloch tribes moving to it and settling here in a significant number. The recent migration wave owes to the partition of Pakistan. Urdu-speaking refugees chose to live here consequently. The majority of Sindh is Muslim.
On the language landscape, Sindhi, Seraiki, and Balochi emerge as local languages. After 1947, Urdu emerged as well. Although Urdu is the official language, yet it is the only province that educates its people in their language at the same time. Larkana represents the Sindhi culture. People of Sindh are very modest and fond of Sufi poets. Agriculture and industry feed this province.
Sindh’s subtropical climate makes sure that summers are hot, and winters are cold. Mercury can rise to 46° C and plunge to 2° C in winter. It receives 7 inches of rainfall every year. Monsoon contributes the chunk.